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آنالیز دی. ان. آ. میتوکندریایی بزهای اهلی

Large-Scale Mitochondrial DNA Analysis of the Domestic Goat Reveals Six Haplogroups with High Diversity

 

Saeid Naderi1,2, Hamid-Reza Rezaei1,3, Pierre Taberlet1, Stéphanie Zundel1, Seyed-Abbas Rafat4, Hamid-Reza Naghash1, Mohamed A. A. El-Barody5, Okan Ertugrul6, François Pompanon1*, for the Econogene Consortium

1 Laboratoire d'Ecologie Alpine, CNRS-UMR 5553, Université Joseph Fourier, Grenoble, France, 2 Natural Resources Faculty, University of Guilan, Guilan, Iran, 3 Environmental Sciences Department, Gorgan University of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran, 4 Animal Science Department, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran, 5 Animal Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Minia University, Minia, Egypt, 6 Department of Genetics, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ankara University, Ankara, Turkey

Abstract

 

Background

 

From the beginning of domestication, the transportation of domestic animals resulted in genetic and demographic processes that explain their present distribution and genetic structure. Thus studying the present genetic diversity helps to better understand the history of domestic species.

 

Methodology/Principal Findings

 

The genetic diversity of domestic goats has been characterized with 2430 individuals from all over the old world, including 946 new individuals from regions poorly studied until now (mainly the Fertile Crescent). These individuals represented 1540 haplotypes for the HVI segment of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region. This large-scale study allowed the establishment of a clear nomenclature of the goat maternal haplogroups. Only five of the six previously defined groups of haplotypes were divergent enough to be considered as different haplogroups. Moreover a new mitochondrial group has been localized around the Fertile Crescent. All groups showed very high haplotype diversity. Most of this diversity was distributed among groups and within geographic regions. The weak geographic structure may result from the worldwide distribution of the dominant A haplogroup (more than 90% of the individuals). The large-scale distribution of other haplogroups (except one), may be related to human migration. The recent fragmentation of local goat populations into discrete breeds is not detectable with mitochondrial markers. The estimation of demographic parameters from mismatch analyses showed that all groups had a recent demographic expansion corresponding roughly to the period when domestication took place. But even with a large data set it remains difficult to give relative dates of expansion for different haplogroups because of large confidence intervals.

 

Conclusions/Significance

 

We propose standard criteria for the definition of the different haplogroups based on the result of mismatch analysis and on the use of sequences of reference. Such a method could be also applied for clarifying the nomenclature of mitochondrial haplogroups in other domestic species.

http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0001012

 
  
نویسنده : رأفت ; ساعت ۱٠:٠۱ ‎ق.ظ روز ۱ آذر ۱۳۸٦
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